Vintage science
Eduardo Avancci Dionisio
Edmundo Inacio Junior
Cristiano Morini
Ruy de Quadros Carvalho


Purpose: This paper aims to address which resources provided by an entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE) are necessary for deep technology entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a novel approach known as necessary condition analysis (NCA) to data on EEs and deep-tech startups from 132 countries, collected in a global innovation index and Crunchbase data sets. The NCA makes it possible to identify whether an EEs resource is a necessary condition that enables entrepreneurship.

Findings: Necessary conditions are related to political and business environment; education, research and development; general infrastructure; credit; trade; diversification and market size; and knowledge absorption capacity.

Research limitations/implications: The results show that business and political environments are the most necessary conditions to drive deep-tech entrepreneurship.

Practical implications: Policymakers could prioritize conditions that maximize entrepreneurial output levels rather than focusing on less necessary elements.

Social implications: Some resources require less performance than others. So, policymakers should consider allocating policy efforts to strengthen resources that maximize output levels.

Originality/value: Studies on deep-tech entrepreneurship are scarce. This study provides a bottleneck analysis that can guide the formulation of policies to support deep-tech entrepreneurship, as it allows to identify priority areas for resource allocation.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial ecosystems; Emerging technology

Ruy de Quadros Carvalho